As passive acoustic measurements [PAM] have become important due to anthropogenic noise impacts on mammals and fish in the open oceans and the coastal regions of the USA, there is a rapidly growing requirement for acoustic measurements and analysis to be conducted.  Infrastructure improvements to harbors and rivers require pile driving activities for bridges and piers, which entail detailed surveys of underwater acoustic measurements.  Ray has 20+ years of hands-on underwater acoustic measurement surveys and is currently working in the PAM field, using autonomous systems.

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